2 Shallow foundations. 1

2.1 Stresses, strains, and displacements in soil 2

2.2 Consolidation settlement 7

2.3 Degree of consolidation. 8

2.4 Time-settlement curve. 11

2.5 Displacement of rigid raft 13

2.6 Consolidation of rigid raft 14

2.7 Settlement of footing groups. 16

3 Deep foundations. 18

3.1 Analysis of single pile. 19

3.2 Bearing capacity and settlement of single pile or pile wall 20

3.3 Analysis of piled raft 22

3.4 Stress coefficient according to GEDDES. 25

3.5 Sheet pile wall 26

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# 1 Description of Quick ELPLA

*Quick ELPLA* 11 has significant enhancements resulted from user feedback over the last few years. The program combines a) the old program* Quick ELPLA* for analyzing different shallow foundation problems; b) the program TIEF for analyzing single piles, pile walls, rigid pile groups, and rigid piled rafts; and c) the program SETZ for determining settlements of footing groups.

*Quick ELPLA* can analyze different type of shallow and deep foundations as described in the following sections.

Figure 1 Calculation Methods

# 2 Shallow foundations

Shallow foundation problems that can be analyzed are, Figure 2:

1. Stresses in soil

2. Strains in soil

3. Displacements in soil

4. Consolidation settlement

5. Degree of consolidation

6. Time-settlement curve

7. Displacement of rigid raft

8. Consolidation of rigid raft

9. Settlement of footing groups

Figure 2 Menu “Shallow foundation problems”

## 2.1 Stresses, strains, and displacements in soil

Stresses, strains, and displacements in the soil can be determined and presented under any point on the foundation or at any plane under the foundation, **0Figure 3 to Figure 9.

Figure 3 Menu "Stress in soil"

Figure 4 Tabulation of results in a text editor

Figure 5 Results as diagrams under a point on the foundation

Figure 6 Results as contour lines at a plane under the foundation

Figure 7 Results as circular diagrams at a plane under the foundation

Figure 8 Tabulation of results in plan at a plane under the foundation

Figure 9 Data in plan

## 2.2 Consolidation settlement

Final consolidation settlement for any irregular foundation on layered soil can be determined, Figure 10 and 0.

Figure 10 Menu "Consolidation settlement"

Figure 11 Final consolidation settlement under a polygon loaded area

## 2.3 Degree of consolidation

The degree of consolidation for linear and nonlinear analysis can be determined for multi-layered of clayey soil with different calculation methods. Cyclic loading for more than 14 types of cyclic loading can be also determined. Initial pore water pressure on the clay layers can be defined by the user or determined due to different types of load geometries on the surface. The consolidation settlement in the place (x, y) due to point load, rectangular uniform load or circular uniform load on the surface can be determined, Figure 12 to Figure 14.

Figure 12 Menu “Degree of consolidation”

Figure 13 Pore water pressure with time for multi-layered of clayey soil

Figure 14 Degree of consolidation for cyclic loading

## 2.4 Time-settlement curve

The time-settlement curve of a building can be determined by three methods. Also, settlements during the construction time and the final settlement from measurement results can be estimated through extrapolation. The load can be applied in steps with time, Figure 15 to Figure 17.

Figure 15 Menu "Time-loading curve"

Figure 16 Time-Load curve

Figure 17 Corrected time-settlement determination

## 2.5 Displacement of rigid raft

Displacement and contact pressure under a rigid rectangular or circular raft on a soil layer can be determined analytically or numerically. Also, half space soil model can be considered, Figure 18 and Figure 19.

Figure 18 Menu “Displacement of rigid raft”

Figure 19 Contact pressure of a rigid raft

## 2.6 Consolidation of rigid raft

Final consolidation settlement and contact pressure under a rigid rectangular or circular raft on a clay layer can be determined analytically or numerically. Also half space soil model can be considered, Figure 20 and Figure 21.

Figure 20 Menu “Contact Pressure”

Figure 21 Consolidation settlement as contour lines under a rigid raft

## 2.7 Settlement of footing groups

Limit depth and settlement of footing group on a layered soil can be determined, Figure 22 to Figure 25.

Figure 22 Menu "Settlement of footing groups"

Figure 23 System of loading and dimension of footing group

Figure 24 Settlement of a group of footings

Figure 25 Limit depth calculation and stress under the footing

# 3 Deep foundations

Deep foundation problems that can be analyzed are, Figure 26:

Analysis of single pile

Bearing capacity and settlement of single pile or pile wall

Analysis of piled raft

Stress coefficient according to GEDDES

Sheet pile wall

Figure 26 Menu “Deep foundation problems”

## 3.1 Analysis of single pile

Linear and nonlinear analyses for piles can be carried out. Elastic pile is analyzed using the finite element method. Half space and layered soil models are considered, Figure 27 and Figure 28.

Figure 27 Menu "Analysis of single pile"

Figure 28 Elastic and rigid displacement along the pile

## 3.2 Bearing capacity and settlement of single pile or pile wall

Bearing capacity and settlement of single piles or pile walls according to DIN 4014 can be determined.

The input data are dimensions of piles, pile tip resistance from penetration test or cohesion *Cu* of the layers. Skin friction of the pile can be defined by the user or determined according to DIN 4014, Figure 29 and Figure 30.

Figure 29 Menu “Bearing capacity and settlement“

Figure 30 Load settlement curve for pile according to DIN 4014

## 3.3 Analysis of piled raft

The settlement of groups of vertically loaded piles and rigid piled raft on layered soil or half space medium can be determined, Figure 31 to Figure 35. The methods of soil analysis are:

· Linear analysis

· Nonlinear analysis using a hyperbolic function for load-settlement

· Nonlinear analysis using DIN 4014 for load-settlement

Figure 31 Menu “Analysis of piled raft“

Figure 32 Pile location and groups

Figure 33 Contact pressure under the piled raft

Figure 34 Pile reactions of piled raft

Figure 35 System of loading

## 3.4 Stress coefficient according to GEDDES

Stresses coefficient due to a load under the surface according to GEDDES can be obtained Figure 36 and Figure 370.

Three types of loading are considered:

· Stress coefficient for a point load.

· Stress coefficient for uniform skin friction.

· Stress coefficient for linear variation of skin friction.

Figure 36 Menu "Stress coefficient according to GEDDES"

Figure 37 Stress coefficient according to GEDDES

## 3.5 Sheet pile wall

The length of sheet pile can be determined for, Figure 38 to Figure 41:

· Cantilever sheet pile wall.

· Anchored sheet pile wall with free earth support.

· Anchored sheet pile wall with fixed earth support.

Figure 38 Menu "Sheet pile wall"

Figure 39 Earth pressure on the sheet pile

Figure 40 Moments on the sheet pile

Figure 41 Shear forces on the sheet pile